Assassinations / JFK

Scheim, David E. Contract on America: The Mafia Murder of President John F. Kennedy. New York: Shapolsky Publishers, 1988. 480 pages.

Davis, John H. Mafia Kingfish: Carlos Marcello and the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. New York: Signet, 1989. 674 pages.

Melanson, Philip H. Spy Saga: Lee Harvey Oswald and U.S. Intelligence. New York: Praeger, 1990. 201 pages.

Garrison, Jim. On the Trail of the Assassins. New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1988. 342 pages.

Anson, Robert Sam. "They've Killed the President!" New York: Bantam Books, 1975. 408 pages.

A number of books on the JFK assassination are indexed in NameBase. Some make the case that the Mafia did it (David Scheim, "Contract on America"; John Davis, "Mafia Kingfish"), others make the case that the CIA had a hand in it (Philip Melanson, "Spy Saga"; Jim Garrison, "On the Trail of the Assassins"), and some support the case for conspiracy without trying to determine who did it (Robert Sam Anson, "They've Killed the President!").


Most Americans agree, on the basis of eyewitnesses and evidence from the scene, that Oswald did not act alone. Whether the Mafia did it, or the CIA did it, or both (they were definitely working together to assassinate Castro), the most troubling legacy of Dallas is not the question of who pulled the trigger. As important as this is, it could have been a lower- echelon, renegade operation of limited scope. More mind-boggling is the probability that for nearly 30 years we've seen a massive cover-up. When considered along with the Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy assassinations, fundamental questions about who really has the power in America, and whether our democracy is a sham, cannot be avoided.

DiEugenio, James. Destiny Betrayed: JFK, Cuba, and the Garrison Case. New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1992. 423 pages.

In the rush of publicity after Oliver Stone's film, some excellent books were reprinted and some questionable old and new ones found a place next to them on bookstore shelves. Until you've read a dozen books on the JFK assassination, it's difficult to distinguish between the two. This is a new work that's very well-produced, and deserves a place with the classics. It has a point of view on the assassination (the intelligence connection), so it's worth mentioning that there are good books with a different point of view, such as "Mafia Kingfish" by John Davis and "Contract on America" by David Scheim (the Mafia connection). Since the CIA and Mafia were working together at the time, this is probably a non-issue. Yes, writers need handles and find it easier to specialize.

So the Mafia-done-it folks should be forewarned -- DiEugenio supports Jim Garrison and is mainly concerned with arguing the merits of Garrison's evidence as seen 25 years after the case was prosecuted. This approach is a necessary palliative in the wake of the "let's go get Stone" stampede. The debate over the movie has tended to focus narrowly on the question of JFK and Vietnam; what gets lost are fascinating questions such as who was this Clay Shaw and what was he up to? Garrison was onto something; judge for yourself. -- D.Brandt

Fensterwald, Bernard, Jr. Coincidence or Conspiracy? New York: Zebra Books, 1977. 592 pages. Produced by the Committee to Investigate Assassinations.

Duffy, James P. and Ricci, Vincent L. The Assassination of John F. Kennedy: A Complete Book of Facts. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1992. 538 pages.

With something like 600 books that have been published on the JFK assassination, we are now seeing books that keep track of other books. Two examples are "Coincidence or Conspiracy" by Bernard Fensterwald (1977) and "The Assassination of John F. Kennedy by James Duffy and Vincent Ricci (1992). The former is recommended as a reference work for researchers; while it has fewer names, the descriptions are more complete and they include footnotes to some primary sources. The latter benefits from fifteen years of additional research and contains over 500 names. One major secondary source is given for each name, but the description under the name is brief and serves mainly as an introduction for the beginner.

Serious researchers with an interest in a particular name should consult the impressive collection of material -- particularly government documents and obscure books, some of which are cumulatively name-indexed -- held at the Assassination Archives and Research Center (918 F Street NW, Suite 510, Washington DC 20004, Tel: 202-393-1917). The Center was founded in 1984 by Bernard Fensterwald, and since his death in 1991 has continued under the direction of James H. Lesar. Their name index is available on IBM-compatible disks from Public Information Research for the cost of reproduction ($10).

Fonzi, Gaeton. The Last Investigation. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1993. 448 pages.

This is the first comprehensive insider account of the House Select Committee on Assassinations. Fonzi was a staff investigator for the HSCA, and before that an investigator for Senator Richard Schweiker, who was interested in the JFK assassination as a member of the Church Committee. Strapped for resources and under deadline pressures, HSCA chief counsel Robert Blakey steered the investigation along avenues that would look good in their report. Blakey gave the CIA plenty of room to maneuver around his investigation, either to enhance his own insider status or because of his realpolitik pragmatism. He blames organized crime for the assassination, while Fonzi is much more interested in anti-Castro Cubans and the CIA. Committee staffers were unable to pursue many promising leads in this area.

Fonzi spends much energy trying to establish that CIA heavyweight David Atlee Phillips was the "Maurice Bishop" that Alpha 66 founder Antonio Veciana saw with Oswald before the assassination. He convinces his readers on this point, but since there's no corroboration for Veciana's story that Bishop met Oswald, it's unclear where this leaves us. The most interesting portions of the book, therefore, revolve around Fonzi's occasional evidence of disinformation and false leads planted in the paths of Committee investigators, apparently by U.S. intelligence assets.

Furiati, Claudia. ZR Rifle: The Plot to Kill Kennedy and Castro. Melbourne, Australia: Ocean Press, 1994. 164 pages.

Claudia Furiati is a Brazilian journalist and filmmaker with good connections in Cuba. After seeing Oliver Stone's movie "JFK," she began wondering what she could find out from Cuban intelligence about their reading of Dallas. She was introduced to Gen. Fabian Escalante Font, who was head of Cuban counterintelligence from 1976-1982. He spent almost a year digging through secret archives with Furiati. The result is this book, which represents the first authorized look at Dallas as seen from Cuban intelligence. Another six months were wasted dealing with U.S. agents and publishers who expressed interest in the book, all of whom backed down.

This book isn't exactly a smoking gun. Rather, it provides filler to the connections between the plots against Castro and the plot against Kennedy. In a Cuban television documentary broadcast on November 26, 1993, Escalante said that the JFK plot was far-reaching. He named the triggermen as three Chicago mobsters (Lenny Patrick, David Yaras, and Richard Cain), and two Cuban exiles (Eladio del Valle and Herminio Diaz Garcia), but said that many in the CIA and elsewhere knew what was going to happen. In 1995, Escalante and other Cuban officials met with researchers from the U.S., at conferences in Rio de Janeiro and Nassau, to further discuss the evidence.

Groden, Robert J. and Livingstone, Harrison Edward. High Treason. New York: Berkley Books, 1990. 562 pages.

Groden, a photographic analyst who worked with the House Select Committee on Assassinations, and Livingstone, a long-time assassination researcher, cover these issues: the medical evidence and faked autopsy photos (100 pages), strange deaths of witnesses (20 pages), gaps in the official protection in Dallas (13 pages), the intelligence and Mafia connections of Oswald, Ruby, and others (95 pages), the faked photo of Oswald in his backyard (12 pages), acoustic and other evidence (60 pages), the House Assassinations Committee (64 pages), and the general historical context of Kennedy, the Bay of Pigs, and Vietnam (75 pages).

The appendix includes an article by Col. Fletcher Prouty on NSAM 263, which he helped write in late 1963. At the time Prouty was with the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and had been in the Pentagon supporting clandestine ops for nine years. He has no doubt what was happening with respect to Vietnam: Kennedy was trying to get out just before he was assassinated, and a pro- escalation policy was in place almost immediately after. Additional research has been done on this topic (see "The Assassinations" by Peter Dale Scott and "JFK and Vietnam" by John M. Newman). But this evidence is so unsettling for comfortable historians that denials and documentary reinterpretations continue to emerge from both ends of the political spectrum.

Hepburn, James. Farewell America. Vaduz, Liechtenstein: Frontiers Publishing, 1968. 418 pages.

Although it qualifies as one of the more unusual books on the JFK assassination, this one is more believable than one might expect. Its history is recounted elsewhere by former Ramparts editor Warren Hinckle, who once sent an emissary to attempt to get the KGB's slant on the assassination. What eventually emerged was a typescript that was probably produced by an element within French intelligence (James Hepburn is a pseudonym). It was later published in French, German, and English.

No, they don't name the bad guys, but the book makes a strong case that it was a conspiracy hatched by some combination of big oil, big defense contractors, the Right, the CIA, anti-Castro exiles, the FBI, and/or organized crime. The book demonstrates an understanding of Oswald's career, and is strongest on the logistics of setting up a Dealey Plaza crossfire with Oswald as a patsy, the physics of firing on a moving target, the basic requirements of motorcade protection, and corruption within the Dallas police. Numerous quotes from Kennedy's speeches while in office remind us that he said things that had never been heard from a U.S. president. Even in 1992 this big picture from France in 1968 seems precocious in some of its detail. It is certainly more interesting than most of the assassination coverage found in U.S. media.

Heiner, Kent. Without Smoking Gun: Was the Death of Lt.Cmdr. William B. Pitzer Part of the JFK Assassination Cover-up Conspiracy? Walterville, Oregon: TrineDay, 2004. 134 pages.

In 1993 Dan Marvin, who had been a captain in the U.S. Army Special Forces in 1965, was watching a 30th anniversary special on the Kennedy assassination. A list of 42 names scrolled by on the screen, each one a person who was connected to the JFK assassination and met a violent end. Marvin recognized a name -- William B. Pitzer, an officer at the National Naval Medical Center who allegedly committed suicide in 1966. Marvin went public, saying that in 1965 he was asked by the CIA to assassinate Pitzer.

Pitzer was in possession of film and photographs of head wounds taken at the NNMC's autopsy of JFK, showing that the fatal shot came from the front. Marvin's story about the CIA's 1965 interest in Pitzer, and the suspicious nature of the Pitzer "suicide" in 1966, plus the account of one Dennis David who claims to have seen the film and photo evidence in Pitzer's office the week after the 1963 assassination, all converge in this book. This is hardly the first JFK assassination book to suggest that the autopsy evidence presented more questions than answers, but it is probably the first to suggest a much deeper conspiracy surrounding that evidence. Unfortunately the end result of this book, despite the author's best efforts, is that we now have even more questions and fewer answers.

Kantor, Seth. The Ruby Cover-Up. New York: Zebra Books, 1992. 450 pages.

Seth Kantor was a Dallas reporter on November 22, 1963, who knew Jack Ruby and exchanged small talk with him at Parkland Hospital one hour after Kennedy was shot. But Ruby denied he was there. The Warren Commission couldn't afford to question Ruby's credibility -- their whole "lone nut" theory was at stake -- so they decided Kantor was mistaken. Burt W. Griffin, the Commission's man on this issue, has reversed himself since reading this book (which first appeared in 1978), and the House Committee in 1979 backed Kantor's version also. This is the best and most comprehensive treatment of the life and associations of Jack Ruby that is currently available. It provides the broad CIA-Mafia background in considerable detail, as well as treating issues such as how Ruby got into the Dallas police basement.

One event described by Kantor seems suspicious to many researchers. In 1963 Harold (Hal) Hendrix was a Scripps-Howard reporter in Miami with good CIA connections; he wrote about the September 25 coup in the Dominican Republic the day BEFORE it happened. Hendrix had information about Oswald's Fair Play for Cuba activities and his defection to the USSR a mere three hours after Oswald's name was on the wires, and gave this information to Kantor. Three years later Hendrix went to work for ITT, and his name became well-known during the CIA-ITT-Chile scandal of the early 1970s.

LaFontaine, Ray and LaFontaine, Mary. Oswald Talked: The New Evidence in the JFK Assassination. Gretna LA: Pelican Publishing Company, 1996. 454 pages.

Many of the 400 books on the JFK assassination seem pointless by now. After 30 years, more forensic microanalysis won't make a difference; what we need is the big picture based on new evidence. This book delivers. The LaFontaines delve into Oswald's anti-Castro activities, there's an entire chapter on George de Mohrenschildt, and -- most refreshingly -- many of the pieces, old and new, that the authors have collected fit into a mosaic that shows macro common sense rather than micro fastidiousness.

Here are some highlights: 1) The three tramps are finally identified from arrest records, and they turn out to be three tramps. 2) Oswald's cell mate after his arrest was located, and his story confirmed. 3) Oswald was likely a patsy for anti-Castro Cubans and Mafia gun-runners. He infiltrated the Cubans for his FBI handler, and, unknown to Oswald, some of those Cubans may have manipulated him. 4) The plan was that Oswald was not supposed to be captured alive; the J.D. Tippit shooting might fit into this scenario. 5) Oswald was deeply involved with U.S. intelligence earlier in his career, beyond any reasonable doubt. 6) The massive post-assassination cover-up is due to the fact that the FBI, CIA, and military intelligence were eager to hide their past association with Oswald. Each had their reasons, and this doesn't mean that they were necessarily involved in the assassination itself.

Lane, Mark. Plausible Denial: Was the CIA Involved in the Assassination of JFK? New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1991. 393 pages.

This bestseller recounts the defamation case brought by E. Howard Hunt against the newspaper Spotlight and its publisher Liberty Lobby. Hunt sued because of a 1978 article by another former CIA officer, Victor Marchetti, who wrote that an internal CIA memo had surfaced that placed Hunt in Dallas on the day of JFK's assassination. In the process of defending the newspaper, Lane was able to take depositions from David Atlee Phillips, Richard Helms and Stansfield Turner. The trial featured the testimony of Marita Lorenz, Fidel Castro's former mistress, in which she said that she had been with Hunt, Frank Sturgis and Jack Ruby in Dallas on November 21. The jury concluded that Hunt lied about his whereabouts on the day of the assassination.

Elsewhere Lane recounts how Phillips once admitted that the photo of Oswald in Mexico City and his visit to the Soviet Embassy there were both nonexistent. The Oswald Mexico City caper a few weeks before the assassination may have been a CIA disinformation trick, designed to implicate the KGB so that Earl Warren would agree to a cover-up as a way to keep us out of World War III. This same cover-up conveniently (for the CIA) obscured all evidence of conspiracy -- including evidence that might implicate U.S. intelligence itself.

Marrs, Jim. Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1990. 625 pages.

For those who have left the Warren Commission behind, "Crossfire" is an excellent compendium of facts suggesting where the truth might be found. "Do not trust this book," Marrs warns, as he challenges his readers to pursue their own research. To assist, he provides a bibliography of more than 100 sources. As of 1992, "Crossfire" is the most comprehensive treatment of the JFK assassination available between two covers. It mentions most of the witnesses, most of the evidence, and most of the conspiracy theories. By contrast, many other JFK assassination books concentrate on one theory, one critical approach, or one portion of the physical evidence.

First Marrs presents the abundant evidence that a single assassin did not kill Kennedy from the book depository. Then he leads into evidence that raises questions about whether Oswald was set up to take the fall, and explores the various groups -- anti-Castro Cubans, organized crime, CIA, FBI, Secret Service, racists, the super rich, and the military -- that had the means, motives, and opportunities. "Crossfire" concludes with a coherent theory that weaves the disparate pieces into a conspiratorial whole. There is little doubt that Marrs, who has been teaching a course on the assassination at the University of Texas in Arlington since 1976, has performed a major public service. -- Lanny Sinkin

Morrow, Robert D. First Hand Knowledge: How I Participated in the CIA-Mafia Murder of President Kennedy. New York: S.P.I. Books (Shapolsky Publishers), 1992. 384 pages. Introduction by John H. Davis.

In 1976 Robert Morrow wrote "Betrayal," a semi-fictionalized account of the JFK assassination based on his own experiences as a CIA contract agent in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Morrow then met with Thomas Downing (D-VA) and substantiated some of the nonfiction portions of the book. Downing held a press conference on August 2, 1976 that led the House Rules Committee to send the bill authorizing the Select Committee on Assassinations to the full House for a vote.

This book is nonfiction, but it is not a breakthrough for those looking for answers. Morrow's weighty contacts included Cubans such as Mario Garcia Kohly and CIA officials such as Tracy Barnes, both of whom were involved with the Bay of Pigs. While there is no question that Morrow is who he claims to be, these and other contacts were apparently only peripheral to the JFK assassination, which is why this new book relies heavily on the work of other researchers. The most interesting portions of "First Hand Knowledge" are Morrow's reconstructed conversations with his contacts. If it were possible to corroborate these conversations, they might offer some new directions for serious researchers. But until then, a better title for this book might be "Second Hand Knowledge."

Newman, John. Oswald and the CIA. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1995. 627 pages, including 90 pages of reproduced documents.

Since the JFK Records Act was passed in 1992, some two million pages have been added to the National Archives. Many of these have been examined by author John Newman and other JFK researchers. The National Archives will take years to process this material, and the Assassination Records Review Board has just begun its task of determining whether some of the more sensitive documents should also be released. This book, in other words, is not the last word on the topic of Oswald and the CIA.

Based mainly on the new material released from 1993-1995, Newman paints a picture of "Oswald the file," as opposed to "Oswald the man." What did compartmented bureaucrats at the CIA know about Oswald from the records available to them, and when did they know it? Much more than what has been publicly acknowledged: there was significant interest in Oswald prior to the assassination. There are also bizarre holes in this interest, suggesting that Oswald was being manipulated by CIA counterintelligence. "We can finally say with some authority that the CIA was spawning a web of deception about Oswald weeks before the president's murder, a fact that may have directly contributed to the outcome in Dallas. Is it possible that when Oswald turned up with a rifle on the president's motorcade route, the CIA found itself living in an unthinkable nightmare of its own making?" (page 430)

Piper, Michael Collins. Final Judgment: The Missing Link in the JFK Assassination Conspiracy. Washington DC: Wolfe Press, 1993. 335 pages. Includes a bibliography and 677 end notes. (Available for $20 from Liberty Library, 300 Independence Avenue SE, Washington DC 20003, Tel: 800-522-6292.)

Just as our two-year subscription to Liberty Lobby's "Spotlight" newspaper was winding down, along comes this book by Spotlight writer Michael Collins Piper. We clipped a fair number of their investigative articles for NameBase during that period, and no longer felt defensive when our leftist critics condemned Spotlight as anti-Semitic. The rare instances of excessive anti-Zionist zeal in Spotlight are more than offset by their consistently credible reporting on other issues.

When we saw the advance publicity for Final Judgment, which claimed that this book would offer "astounding proof" that Mossad had a hand in the JFK assassination, we were a bit nervous. As it turns out, the Mossad links presented by Piper are circumstantial rather than conclusive, but definitely worth considering. Other aspects of the JFK morass that Piper discusses, such as the Mafia-CIA-Israeli connection (starring Meyer Lansky and James Angleton), Charles DeGaulle and his problems with the OAS, and the spooky business of Permindex, are rarely treated in other JFK literature. So we were happy to include this book in NameBase, particularly since it doesn't have an index of its own.

Prouty, L. Fletcher. JFK: The CIA, Vietnam, and the Plot to Assassinate John F. Kennedy. New York: Birch Lane Press, 1992. 366 pages. With an introduction by Oliver Stone.

L. Fletcher Prouty is a retired Air Force colonel who served in the Pentagon from 1955-1963 as the Focal Point liaison officer for Department of Defense support of CIA covert activities. During the Kennedy years his title was Chief, Special Operations Division, Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was a briefing officer on various special assignments dating back to the Cairo and Teheran conferences of 1943, and has also been a jet pilot and professor of air science and tactics at Yale University. Since first writing on the topic in May, 1970 for the Washington Monthly, he has made a persistent case based on his own experiences that the CIA and other secret elites are out of control. Prouty was portrayed as "Mr. X" in Oliver Stone's movie "JFK."

When Eisenhower warned about the military-industrial complex, Prouty was in a position to know what the outgoing president was talking about. With the publication of this book, the opening scene in "JFK" and the later interview with "Mr. X" are transformed from fleeting visual images into a coherent impression that is based on Prouty's richly-detailed experiences in the Pentagon. Prouty presents evidence that JFK was removed because he wanted to curtail the CIA and get out of Vietnam, but those responsible remain nameless and faceless, visible only in rough outline.

Russell, Dick. The Man Who Knew Too Much. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992. 824 pages. With a foreword by Carl Oglesby.

If the avalanche of reissued and rehashed JFK assassination books since Oliver Stone's movie has a downside, it's only because the one book that is possibly as significant as all the rest put together might get buried. After over a hundred interviews (including James Angleton and other CIA officials) and seventeen years of persistent research, Dick Russell has written such a book. While providing much new information on the intelligence connection, Russell doesn't offer any easy answers apart from the observation that organized crime alone could not have manipulated the physical evidence and the cover-up without substantial help.

Russell's treatment of the intelligence angle is comprehensive -- Oswald in Japan, CIA in Mexico, military intelligence, mind-control, KGB, anti-Castro Cubans, H.L. Hunt et al. Simultaneously, his journalistic hook is an extended cat-and-mouse debriefing of Richard Case Nagell, an untalk- ative Oswald associate who contracted with U.S. intelligence and also had an arrangement with the Soviets; it still isn't clear who was pulling his strings. Nagell walked into an El Paso bank in September 1963 and fired two shots into the wall so that he would be in jail while "it" came down. "It" happened two months later, on November 22, 1963. If there is space on your shelf for only one JFK assassination book, make it this one.

Scott, Peter Dale. Crime and Cover-Up: The CIA, the Mafia, and the Dallas-Watergate Connection. Berkeley CA: Westworks, 1977. 80 pages.

In June, 1976, a report on the role of U.S. intelligence agencies in the investigation of the JFK assassination was released by Senators Richard S. Schweiker and Gary Hart. This report was one of the first official confirmations that the Mafia had used its knowledge of CIA assassination plots against Castro to blackmail the U.S. government. In September of that year the House voted 280 to 65 for a resolution that began the House Select Committee on Assassinations.

Peter Dale Scott, whose breadth and mastery of detail has for years been applied to research that ranges from domestic history to the 1965 coup in Indonesia, uses the Schweiker-Hart report as a point of departure to examine the connections between the JFK cover-up, the CIA, the Mafia, Jack Ruby, Howard Hughes, and Watergate. In 1976 the dimensions of the CIA-Mafia collusion were just emerging into the public record, so this little volume made a timely contribution. The 49 pages of text are supplemented with 216 expansive endnotes, and both are extremely dense with names. Although Scott doesn't pretend to have a clear picture, he shows that general shapes can be discerned from the interconnecting debris of Dallas and Watergate. A former Canadian diplomat, Scott has a Ph.D. in Political Science and is a professor of English at UC Berkeley.

Scott, Peter Dale. Deep Politics and the Death of JFK. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. 413 pages.

This book is similar to Scott's "Crime and Cover-Up: The CIA, the Mafia, and the Dallas-Watergate Connection" (1977), a slim volume that was packed full of names. His method is to connect the dots between the major scandals and tragedies of U.S. history since World War II by tracking those under- world operators and politicians who seem to reappear in them. Scott rejects "parapolitics" as too narrow, and prefers "deep politics" -- a recognition that the infrastructure of U.S. politics is based essentially on organized crime and corruption. Most of the scandals and tragedies are linked through common actors, or by enterprises such as drug-running. By emphasizing these links rather than dealing with each separately, we begin to understand the depths of "the collective shadow, or shadows, of America."

In graduating from "parapolitics" to "deep politics," Scott is intensive with names and footnotes illustrating microconnections between actors. In the end, however, he offers only as much macroanalysis as one might expect from a "Who's Who." He makes his case that the problem is larger than just the JFK assassination, or Vietnam hawks, or just Watergate or Iran-contra, and admits that he is optimistic that "healing can come from an enlargement of insight." But for many readers this book is best used as a reference text. To digest it all at once is akin to an overdose with no prescribed remedy.

Summers, Anthony. Conspiracy. New York: Paragon House, 1989. 657 pages.

This book by British investigative journalist Anthony Summers has earned a reputation as the best-written and best-researched book available that presents a comprehensive overview of the JFK assassination. Summers doesn't take a position on the Mafia vs. CIA debate, but he is able to shed new light on both possibilities because his investigation is broader than the books that specialize in only one facet of the case.

Many books deal exhaustively with the eyewitnesses, the photographic evidence, Oswald's background, or the medical evidence (but seldom more than one or two of these at the same time), while those that are comprehensive tend to rely heavily on previous publications. In other words, the field is so vast these days that if you want to investigate you have to specialize, and if you want to be comprehensive you won't have time to do much more than rearrange the previous literature. Summers is the exception to this rule.

The 1981 edition went into NameBase first, and then updated portions from the 1989 edition were added. There is also a 1991 edition that we don't have. In it Summers wrote a foreword that criticized Oliver Stone even before his movie had been released, proving once again that assassination researchers are their own worst enemies.

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